7.9.2010

Museo Salvador Dalí, en Florida, USA

El museo, situado en la costa de la Florida, la cual sufre periódicamente el impacto de potentes huracanes, albergará algunas de las obras más importantes de Salvador Dalí, el surrealista más prolífico e influyente en el mundo del arte. El diseño es una solución rigurosa y práctica a la doble necesidad de proteger y exhibir la gran colección. Sus paredes, construidas en hormigón armado reforzado de 18" de espesor, resisten vientos de hasta 165 mph; las obras se ubican en la tercera planta, por encima del plano de inundación. Esta fuerte caja euclidiana de hormigón protege el arte, pero se rompe e interrumpe para permitir que fluya el orgánico vidrio triangular "Enigma", abriendo el museo a la bahía y al cielo. Este contraste entre el mundo racional de la conciencia y la más intuitiva, natural y sorprendente es un tema constante en la obra de Dalí y el diseño es una referencia abstracta a este aspecto de su obra. El vidrio "Enigma", que brota de la construcción y forma el techo del atrio y las cascadas hasta el suelo, es el primer ejemplo del uso de la geometría de forma geodésica libre en los EE.UU. El análisis informático y la fabricación controlada digitalmente, permitieron que cada componente sea único. Esto nos ha permitido crear una familia de formas que, si bien son estructuralmente robustas, se asemejan más al flujo de líquidos en la naturaleza. La escalera caracol energiza el atrio de cristal y conecta la entrada a nivel del suelo con las galerías del tercer nivel. Es también una alusión a la fascinación de Dalí con el ADN, el rectángulo de oro y la serie de Fibonacci. Es un espiral de hormigón armado que funciona como un resorte tensado con sus escalones en voladizo.

How does the design relate to the building’s function?
It is situated on a Florida waterfront, which can experience powerful hurricanes. The design is a rigorous and practical solution to the need to protect the collection and exhibit a great collection. The building is constructed of exposed cast-in-place reinforced concrete walls, 18” thick, hurricane resistant up to 165 MPH winds. The art, located above flood plane on the third floor, is protected from up to a Category 5 hurricane storm surge.

The flow of art works within the building, from service dock to the service elevator connects directly to art vault and into the temporary exhibitions and permanent collection galleries. The pathway of visitors and staff throughout the building has been similarly carefully organized for simplicity, efficiency, security and pleasure of experience. Clarity of circulation has been a generator of the plan since the outset of the project.

What makes the project unique?
The design concept is drawn directly from the building’s purpose. The museum will house some of the most important works of Salvador Dalí –the most prolific and influential surrealist the art world has ever known. It is important that the building speak to the surreal, without being trite. A strong, poured-concrete Euclidean “treasure box” protects the art, but is then broken, disrupted, by the flowing, organic, triangulated glass “Enigma”, opens the museum to the bay and sky. It is as though a glittering jewel is bursting from the “treasure box”.  This contrast between the rational world of the conscious and the more intuitive, surprising natural world is a constant theme of Dalí’s work and the design is an abstract reference to this aspect of his work.

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The glass “Enigma” which bursts from the building and forms the atrium roof and cascades to the ground is the first use of this type of free-form geodesic geometry in the US. Dali was a friend and admirer of Buckminster Fuller, and a geodesic dome crowns Dali’s own museum in Figueres, Spain. But Fuller’s great work was restricted by the technology of his time to platonic solid and great circle geometries, in order to limit the number of different components. The flowing, free-form use of geodesic triangulation is a very recent innovation permitted by modern computer analysis and digitally controlled fabrication, which permits each component to be unique. No glass panel, structural node or strut is precisely the same, and all identified by bar code to facilitate fabrication, shipping and assembly. This has permitted us to create a family of shapes which while structurally robust more closely resembles the flow of liquids in nature.

The soaring poured-in-place spiral stair energizes the glass atrium and connects the ground level entrance to the galleries of the third level. It is also an allusion to Dali’s fascination with DNA, the golden rectangle and the Fibonacci series. It is a structural tour-de-force, with the reinforced concrete spiral functioning as a tensioned spring held at ground level and at the third floor, with the stair treads cantilevered from the central spiral. All wooden form marks and artefacts of its construction are preserved to contrast with the more finished materials of the railings and interior.

Sustainable features:
– Building oriented to exclude S and W solar radiation
– Compact, efficient  building envelope  conserves energy
– All staff work spaces are well lit with natural daylight, with ample views to the exterior, except for those requiring special security
– Materials selected to be sustainable, whether from local, renewable, recycled or recyclable
– Glazing is insulated, partially reflective and low-E filtered
– Plumbing fixtures are low-flow to conserve water
– Rooftop solar panels supply hot water for museum humidity control reheat and hot water supply
– Insulated 18” thick reinforced concrete walls provide thermal mass to building

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