26.12.2012

The Silver Factory, in Norway

La creación de la Silver Factory es el primer paso para el restablecimiento de la histórica zona occidental de Kongsberg. Noruega, y la consolidación de un centro unificado en la ciudad que se caracteriza por tener una red de activas instalaciones y espacios públicos.

El edificio propuesto dialoga con su ubicación histórica consolidando el tejido urbano, estableciendo nuevas conexiones y mejorando los espacios públicos existentes. El compacto complejo está concebido como un cofre para albergar el conocimiento y la cultura, con un espectacular cañón interior que reúne a diversas funciones educativas, cívicas y culturales. Al superponer los diferentes elementos programáticos en el sitio se crea un edificio extremadamente eficiente que invita a la interacción pero que simultáneamente cuenta con espacios de privacidad y concentración. El edificio es espacial, programática y socialmente multi-direccional y dinámico. Es capaz de expandirse y contraerse de acuerdo con las necesidades de los usuarios y de adaptarse a las futuras demandas. Se trata de un edificio público que se extenderá mucho más allá de sus funciones primarias y que se ofrece como un foro público para cualquier ocasión, ya sea para tomar un tranquilo café en la mañana o para asistir a una conferencia abierta en la noche. La magia del edificio se encuentra en los espacios intersticiales y en el paisaje interior que brillan como la plata al fusionar el conocimiento y la cultura en Kongsberg.

 

Original Text in English

The creation of the Silver Factory is the first step in reviving Kongsberg’s historic West side and consolidating a united city centre that will be characterized by a network of active public spaces and facilities. The proposed Silver Factory creates a dialogue with its historical location by weaving together the local urban fabric, establishing new connections and enhancing the existing public spaces. The compact complex is conceived as a mine of knowledge and culture with a spectacular interior canyon that brings together the various educational, civic and cultural functions. By overlapping the different programmatic elements on the site an extremely efficient building is created that invites interaction yet also offers the opportunity for privacy and concentration. The building is spatially, programmatically and socially multi-directional and dynamic. It is able to adapt, expand and contract according to the needs of its users, the time of the day or the demands of the future. It is a public building that will extend far beyond its primary functions and offer Kongsberg a public forum for every occasion, whether it is for a quiet coffee in the morning or an open lecture in the evening. The magic of the building is in the interstitial spaces and interior landscape that will sparkle with the fusion of Kongsberg’s intertwining new silver: knowledge and culture.

Urban Vision
Positioning and Potential
Situated between Norway’s expanding economic heart and the beautiful nature of Buskerud and Telemark, Kongsberg now has the opportunity to reconfirm itself as an important mine of knowledge and culture and an attractive home for a population that demands good education, recreation and a high quality of life. The initiative that Kongsberg is taking in commissioning a Silver Factory will be an important catalyst in developing the city as a whole.

If Google maps points to the East as Kongsberg’s centre it is evident that the balance between the commercial East and historic West needs to be readdressed. Moving the HiBu to the historic centre is a clear opportunity to create a stronger West side. What however is more important is to create a unified city centre that spans each side of the river in which both sides support and strengthen each other. At the same time the economic heart of the city lies to the South. By improving the physical connections the relationship between the Technopark and not only the HiBu but also the city as a whole can be strengthened and provide a valuable economic impulse.

Kongsberg needs a suitable model that will strengthen its city centre in the short, medium and long term. An urban framework should provide a basis for immediate development, stimulate citywide growth and be flexible enough to accommodate future demands and circumstances. In the present situation a number of points within the city can be identified as either vibrant urban spaces or containing the potential to become so. Our strategy is to focus on the existing qualities and potentials and link these ‘hotspots’ or ‘hubs’ via a network based on the found urban structure. Kongsberg’s potential cannot be fulfilled with a model based on either a single concentration of programme or even a closed circuit of (knowledge and culture) activity but rather with an open and plural network based on points of intensity that will activate the entire city centre and encourage future growth.

The urban network can either expand or contract so as to involve existing or future hubs within the city. The Technopark, for instance, should be considered as part of the network with a dedicated cycle path strengthening the link and facilitating exchange with the Silver Factory. The network model can be strengthened by the envisaged pedestrian and cyclist bridge, but does not fail without it.

The success of an active network depends very much on the quality of the public space that carries it. Public space is instrumental in inviting people into buildings and can encourage multiple-use if the public space itself is multi-purpose and of high quality. Kongsberg is blessed with the beauty of the river, many green pockets and attractive streets, squares and paths. These qualities need to be enhanced to establish the foundation of the network. The programme ‘hotspots’ should be combined with strong public spaces, whether they be green or hard, and linked by inviting streets, paths and bridges.

The distribution of programme and activity in focal points throughout Kongsberg’s centre can stimulate interaction between different activities and disciplines. Various activities and networks can overlap to come in contact with each other. If, for example, a student comes in daily contact with a researcher for the technology industry then collaborations can occur. As such we do not talk about only a knowledge and culture network, but a network that also includes tourism, recreation, shopping, business, night life and so on.

Rather than determine definitive locations for the extra programme that has been suggested we propose possible locations for combinations of programmes that will help to establish this plural network and stimulate cross-fertilisation and joint use. A hotel on the North side of the new Hasbergtjerndalen Park will help stimulate further growth on the West side. The hotel can be combined with a health spa, offer links to the youth hostel and also provide student accommodation when needed. The park itself will then be activated by two strong programmatic poles. The hotel is well connected by road, bus, bike, foot and rail and can even become a ski hotel in the winter season.

Student housing could be opportunistically scattered throughout the city centre, however the focus should be initially placed on Nytorget and the (to be moved) Best Western hotel on Herman Foss gate. A new building combing student accommodation, shopping and cafes on Nytorget will give the square a welcome impulse and ensure twenty four hour activity. At the same time the square itself and surrounding plinths can be developed into a pedestrian friendly and green shopping and leisure square. Conceptually part of the Silver Factory the Exploria might be preferably positioned as part of the former Kongsberg Kino on Nymoens Torg. This location would encourage movement and interaction between the West and East side and activate all the areas in between.

The construction of the E134 Kongsberg bypass offers the city the opportunity to become a truly pedestrian and cyclist friendly city. The conditions are already in place for this to take place however, particularly the promotion of bike use, requires a change of mindset that can be stimulated by physical measures. With relatively low traffic densities and speeds dedicated cycle lanes will not be necessary within the close city centre, however these can be made on the wider city scale so as to establish cycle routes for both daily commuting and recreation. The Bergmannsveien, for example, will in the future be able to accommodate a dedicated cycle route linking the Technopark with the Silver Factory. This route can be extended to the Tinius Olsen College, train station and beyond on the East side either via the Storgata or the envisaged pedestrian and cycle bridge across the Numedalslågen River. Bicycle storage provision is also crucial in encouraging cycle use and is therefore proposed both on the interior and exterior of the Silver Factory.

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As part of Kongsberg’s strategy to encourage the use of public transport and bikes the parking provision has been set at eighty spaces. On weekdays these spaces are primarily for the Kongsberg Kommune staff and guests. In the evenings and weekends these can be used for general short term parking. Long term parking and service cars will be provided in the proposed parking facility at Skauløkka. The parking facilities have been positioned so that, if required, a waterproofed basement level can be easily added. A single extra level would provide a further 300 parking spaces.

Heritage
Respect for the past, forward to the future
Positioning a facility with the size and ambition of the Silver Factory in Kongsberg’s historically most valuable location requires a great deal of both sensitivity and daring. Sensitivity and respect must be shown to the rich heritage of the buildings and spaces of the Kirketorget, Kirkegata and Hasbergtjerndalen. These are Kongsberg’s most valuable architectural assets and therefore must not be compromised. At the same time a bold step needs to be taken in order to create something truly strong that will help propel Kongsberg into the future. Rather than timidly mimicking the past or provoking confrontation with the shock of the new, we believe the Silver Factory should open up a meaningful dialogue between the old and the new. A true dialogue can only occur when the new opens itself up to the past and vice versa.

Kirketorget
As Kongsberg’s historical heart we do not believe in substantial interventions on the Kirketorget. This is a grand and peaceful square which can be further activated via small scale public programme within the existing buildings. During the jazz festival, the 17th May and Christmas markets the square is able to receive large scale events, but throughout the rest of the year the quiet atmosphere should be retained. The necessary car parking however can be concentrated on quiet days and allow for either more or less spaces when needed for special occasions.

By fractionally lowering the square between the church and the Bergseminaret an area is created that can be filled with water to create a reflecting pool during the warmer months or an ice skating rink during the winter months. Likewise the water can be easily drained to leave the square as it is now and able to accommodate car parking or large scale events such as the jazz festival.

Hasbergtjerndalen
The Hasbergtjerndalen at present is a semi-neglected urban space, despite its obvious qualities as a foreground to the buildings of the Kirketorget and valuable green space within the city centre. The E134 bypass is an opportunity to revise the Bergmannsveien street profile. At this part the street can become a park way, allowing the valley to be experienced and used more as a unified space and restoring the historic connection between the Kirketorget and Gruveåsen. By repositioning the long term parking in the proposed parking facility at Skauløkka the Hasbergtjerndalen can become a green public space acting as both campus green for the students of the HiBu and public park for the whole city. This park is designed as a natural amphitheatre with intimate niches and balconies surrounding it. A large balcony on the Silver Factory can serve as a stage for outdoor performances on the park. A water element in the centre of the park is introduced as a memory of the stream that once ran down into the valley from Gruveåsen.

Kirkegata
The Kirkegata is Kongsberg’s oldest street and needs to reestablish its important status by becoming a more populated and active street. We propose to rent out the historic buildings along this street for retail, cafes and restaurants. These will have a front address on the Kirkegata but will open out to the Silver Factory to the West, where there will be space for more intimate, sunny terraces. The Kirkegata will also be one of the main entrances for the Silver Factory as pedestrians and cyclists will be able to filter through the historic buildings to the East courtyard of the new facility.

The house on Kirkegata 2b occupies a critical position in relation to the complex’s proposed site. In order to create a logical entrance relating to Kirketorget and Kirkegata, and to frame a courtyard space and the green plateau at the South West corner of Kirketorget, the house has been retained but replaced. The house can then become a pavilion and make a stronger public contribution to the area.

Architecture
Weaving together the historic fabric
Situated on the edge of the historic centre’s natural plateau the Silver Factory ties together the urban fabric by creating entrances from the different levels of the Kirketorget, Kirkegata and Hasbergtjerndalen. These levels are brought together by the interior landscape of the building; the terrain cascades from the plateau edge to the valley bottom to form the topography of the main public space.

Stacked wooden blocks enclose the formalized terrain to capture a grand interior public forum that compliments the open, stately Kirketorget. Gaps between the blocks and punctured openings carefully frame views of Kongsberg and its surrounding context. When entering from the East a view of Gruveåsen mountain is framed as a reminder of the origins of the city and its silver mines. From the West entrance views to the historic centre and the Hasbergtjerndalen Park are revealed. Throughout the building framed views are opened and closed to create a continuously evolving relationship between the interior and the unique Kongsberg context. On the exterior a sheltered route winds up from the park, onto the public library balcony and around the fly-tower of the great hall leads visitors to an observation deck that opens up a 360’ panorama of Kongsberg and its surroundings.

The potential for joint use between the various facilities of the Silver Factory creates a clear opportunity for not only economic efficiencies but also valuable synergies. Looking at the overall programmatic requirements it is possible to identify certain types of spaces that are common to the various involved organisations. These include, for example, large scale meeting spaces and auditoriums that are needed by the HiBu, the Kongsberg Kommune, the cinema and the BFK fagskole. Immediately certain communal programmes can be overlapped and, by identifying the temporal use of these spaces by each organization (for example an auditorium is used as a lecture hall for the HiBu by day and as a cinema in the evening) the total area requirement for peak use can be calculated. At the same time others uses are specific to individual organisations or are common in type but cannot accommodate different users (for example administrative offices that require dedicated storage space). By combining the shared and individual programmes it is then possible to establish a total overall programme that will satisfy all the different users.

To meet the individual needs of the various organisations, allow for autonomy, maximize the joint use of shared spaces and stimulate synergy between the users, the programme is organized into intersecting blocks. The main users are arranged in an East-West direction whereas sharing between the users moves predominantly in a North-South direction. This arrangement enables each user to connect both to the historical centre and the valley, and stimulates interaction between users in a horizontal direction.

The shared functions are placed centrally to allow easy access for all. The large, more public functions such as the auditoria, libraries and canteens are placed on the lower, more accessible levels. The smaller, specialized shared functions such as classrooms and meeting rooms are positioned on the higher, more secluded levels. The dedicated, exclusive functions are placed outwards or upward to allow for privacy and autonomy.

Perhaps the most valuable spaces are the interstitial spaces between the blocks that both create the necessary distance for autonomy and stimulate spontaneous and informal meetings within the compact communal complex. This is where the university canteen becomes a hip café, where the public library becomes a grand theatre foyer, where the cinema bar becomes an art gallery. This is where the essence of the building lies and where the public heart of Kongsberg will find its home.

Materiality
The Silver Factory’s architectonic dialogue with the Kongsberg context operates on several levels; from the terraced composition of the stacked volumes to the honest and familiar materiality of the façade. With a dark, rugged exterior that opens up to a warm and luminous interior the Silver Factory is at once modern and humble, challenging and welcoming.

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Exterior
The large scale of the complex is broken into blocks that both relate to the churchyard terraces of the Hasbergtjerndalen and the smaller scale of the surrounding buildings. The façade system has been chosen both to emphasize the overall composition from a distance but also provide nuance and differing levels of transparency on the closer scale. Furthermore the system is flexible in its components, enabling it to accommodate the wide range of different programmes within the complex. Rough granite is used on the lower level of the North façade as a continuation of the stone walls of the valley terraces. The rest of the building is clad with slats of blackened fir that shimmer in the light and create a contemporary echo of the region’s traditional materials. Although proud in its ambition the Silver Factory’s wooden façade tells a more modest story of nature and imperfection.

Interior
In contrast to the sober exterior, the interior is light, homely and radiates with subtle ‘silver’ accents. The stone floor of the surrounding courtyards and paving carries into the interior to pull the public space into the building. The stone paving frames a light wooden floor that climbs the valley side and folds upwards over the closed volumes of the interior. Light floods deeply into the interior and is reflected by light surfaces of wood and plaster. Metal detailing is used as an accent in special places, such as the metal mesh curtain that wraps around the public library’s informal lecture room. The interior is luminous and optimistic and will provide a magnificent living room for Kongsberg.

Auditoria
Central to the Silver Factory shared programme is a number of large assembly rooms that accommodate a range of events including lectures, film showings, council meetings, dance performances, banquets and jazz concerts. These auditoria are designed to be as open and flexible as possible, yet also generate a special atmosphere and connection to the Kongsberg context.

Great hall
As the largest gathering space in the complex the great hall can host a wide range of events; from a state of the art modern dance performance to a civic banquet, or from a rock concert to a university exhibition. Extreme flexibility in use is achieved by a state of the art mechanical seating system, an alterable relationship between the stage and audience space and the possibility to open the walls of the hall itself.

The only fixed seats in the hall are the 150 balcony seats. Vertically manoeuverable seating on the ground level allows for countless seating configurations. 400 audience and another 50 orchestra pit seats can be provided at ground level. The system retracts the seats to below ground level, thereby avoiding the need for a furniture object in the hall when standing space is required. It is even possible to retract the seats altogether for entirely standing concerts or parties. The size of the hall can be expanded by retracting the division between the audience and back of house stage space, thus creating a gigantic hall for grand events. The space can be extended further by opening the side walls of the audience section to allow the hall to flood into the foyer and public library. The boundaries of the hall can therefore be blurred to include even larger numbers of public. The hall becomes the foyer and the foyer becomes the hall. Situated on the floor of the Hasbergtjerndalen valley the great hall can be opened up to frame views both to the North and South.

Silver room
The black box becomes a silver room; a space that can perform with the flexibility and ruggedness of a black box but also contains the characteristic qualities of a unique and refined council chamber. The silver room is positioned on the +9,0m level, its northern wall can be either closed for containment or opened to frame an exceptional view of the Kongsberg Kirke and valley. The room is clad in silver… and can be accessed directly via a balcony connecting to the Kirkegata, thereby linking the room closely to the town hall as a council chamber.

Outdoor performance
A balcony facing the park on the +4,5m level can double up as a stage for outdoor performances. With a grass amphitheatre in the park providing informal seating, Kongsberg will have an extra venue for the jazz festival.

Cinemas
Situated at the very centre of the Silver Factory the cinema halls are at once movie theatres, lecture halls and the ascending floor of the HiBu library. They can be either accessed from the cinema foyer at the North, +4,5m level or from the HiBu reception in the South on the 0m level. In this way the cinema foyer function does not conflict with the autonomy that may be required for the educational programme. The West cinema hall has a curtained glass façade with views of Gruveåsen. All the Northern façades of the cinemas are glazed to allow light from the central canyon space if desired.

Small auditoriums
A small auditorium is placed at the South East entrance to the building with a glazed façade to the Kirkegata courtyards. The public library also has a small circular lecture room that can be curtained off for talks. In this way the Silver Factory offers space for the smallest and most intimate of lectures and gatherings.

Economy and development
Concept of flexibility
Due to the organization of separate but intertwining programmatic components users are able to close off or open up to other users as desired. Users are also able to occupy more or less of the building if needed; an organization can grow or shrink within the building. Other users can also easily join the complex.

The concept of the building is not based on a finite form but rather it is an adaptable form based on a principle of sharing, synergy and flexibility. As such it is possible to add, subtract, reduce or extend the components of the building without compromising the overall concept. The proposal as it stands can be considered as the first step in a long process of defining, redefining and refining the building’s programme and ambitions. The concept and the team stand very much open to learning and reacting on the deeper detail of the user requirements, the possible addition or subtraction of users and the participation and contribution of other involved parties.

Phasing
The plot to the West of the complex could provide useful expansion space in the future. The buildings on this plot will have a close relationship to both the Silver Factory and the …church yet will also create a new front to Bergmannsveien. As such clear parameters are set relating to the height of – and the distance from – the church, the creation of East-West view and movement lines and a representative façade to the Bergmannsveien. Furthermore the possibility of a bridge across Hasbergsvei connecting to the Silver Factory is anticipated.

Enviroment
Energy Sources
The building will have a varied cooling and heating load which, due to the usage, will not be purely seasonal- in other words it will experience cooling demands in one room at the same time as heating demands in others. The building will mine for energy in the ground below using ground source heating and cooling. The building’s systems will be smart enough such that they can move heat around the building as well, from places where it is generated, by large audiences, for example, to places where it is needed.

The principle of ground source heating and cooling is that the ground is a big mass which has a relatively constant temperature in both summer and winter and, by using heat pumps (similar to refrigerators), it is possible to extract heat from it or dump waste heat into it. On this site, the relatively deep layer of sandy, damp ground is perfect for the transmission of heat energy. Electrical energy will come from the local network.

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Renewable energy will be used to generate hot water for taps using solar thermal collectors. There is an opportunity to use solar photo-voltaics to contribute to the electrical supply but this is not a fundamental part of the otherwise interdependent energy strategy.

Energy savings
A number of different strategies have been adopted in order to reduce the consumption of energy. These are described in more detail and include:
– Optimised ventilation strategies for different room types
– Demand-controlled ventilation
– Energy recovery on ventilation systems
– Energy transfer and storage in heating and cooling systems
– Variable speed pumping on cooling and heating systems
– High degree of air-tightness
– High degree of insulation
– Intelligent lighting controls
– Building energy management system

Water savings
To reduce the cost of water consumption and also the volume of water discharged to the public sewer, a number of measures will be adopted:
– Low-flow taps, dual flush WC’s and waterless urinals
– Automatic shut-off of water around the building
– Leak detection
– Rainwater recycling
– Heating and cooling system

Water pipes will be integrated into the piles of the building foundations to create energy piles. Water circulated in those pipes will then be able to carry heat from the ground to the building or vice versa. During the summer, when the demand is predominantly for cooling, heat will be deposited in the ground. During the winter heat will be removed from the ground and distributed to the building.

These transfers are achieved by using heat pumps. A series of heat pumps will draw the low-grade heat from the ground and transfer it to a higher temperature water buffer in the technical room. A similar arrangement will cool a low-temperature buffer. Thus two sources of energy are created for use in the building. For those frequent times when the building needs both cooling and heating, the heat pump which provides the cooling, will reject waste heat directly to the heat pump which provides heating, thus increasing the efficiency of the system.

A small air-cooled chiller will be installed to provide peak-lopping for those periods when the cinemas and theatre are in full swing and the cooling load is at a peak. This avoids having a ground source system which is big enough to deal with these less frequent occurrences. This chiller will be able to operate as a free-cooling chiller for the much of the year as the air temperatures are not frequently higher than the required water temperatures. In fact, when free cooling is readily available this chiller can be used instead of the ground source system, thus further increasing system efficiency.

To keep the heating side of the ground source system efficient, it is preferable to use lower temperature water than is common. This makes it perfect for underfloor heating in the large public spaces and requires radiator circuits in other areas to be designed with this temperature in mind.

Similarly, it is preferable to use higher-than-normal temperatures in the cooling system. This goes hand in hand with the use of chilled beams to provide cooling. These will be utilised in those office and classrooms where more cooling is required than can be delivered by background ventilation alone. Chilled beams are very efficient since they have no moving parts. Both the heating and cooling systems will make use of variable speed pumps so that the amount of water which is moved is the amount of water which is needed and not more.

The building fabric itself will also help with cooling. Exposed concrete in certain areas will allow access to the thermal mass of the structure, thus reducing cooling loads. Where that is not possible, ceiling and wall systems which use phase change materials will be used to soak up heat passively.

Ventilation systems
Different ventilation systems will be used in different areas to suit the different requirements of each space.

In the theatre, cinemas and auditoria, displacement ventilation will be used, supplying cool air at low level and extracting hot air at high level. This technique is quiet and efficient because it uses a lower volume of air than a standard system. The delivered airflow will vary based on the cooling needs and the CO2 levels in the rooms.

In the libraries, where room heights are tall and acoustics are important, displacement ventilation will again be used to provide fresh air and cooling when necessary. In this instance the air will be delivered through the floor. In the offices and classrooms, fresh air will be provided. The airflow will vary according to the CO2 levels in the rooms. Additional cooling will be provided, where required, by local chilled beams.

The majority of air handling units will have variable speed fans so that air flow can be matched with demand. They will also be fitted with high-efficiency heat exchangers to ensure that as little heat is wasted as possible. The design of the units and of the ductwork systems will aim to minimise inefficiencies so that it takes as little energy to move the air as possible.

Domestic water systems
Solar thermal collectors mounted on the roof will be used to generate hot water in storage cylinders. In order to allow pasteurisation and avoid problems with legionella, the cylinders will also have electric heating elements. Rainwater will be collected from the roof, filtered, disinfected and stored for the flushing of toilets. Leak detection systems identify leaks that might not otherwise be obvious and auto shut-off valves will ensure that, if there are small leaks or unwanted overflows in toilets etc, these are stopped automatically.

Lighting systems
The various lighting systems will make use of a range of different technologies with different light sources and different control strategies. All of these will be designed for the specific task at hand, be it functional office lighting or dramatic architectural lighting. The number of different light sources will be kept small to make maintenance easy and will include low-power LED’s, high-efficiency fluorescents and strong discharge lamps. Lighting control systems shall be integrated into one central system for easy management. Control strategies will include:
– Daylight linking- to dim the artificial light when there is plenty of daylight
– Manual dimming- to set scenes in meeting rooms and auditoria, for example
– Absence detection- in offices, for example, where users turn the lights on but they turn off automatically when everyone has left
– Timers- for external areas, for example building energy management systems

A low energy design only becomes a low energy building if it is operated in the way in which its designers intended. Of course, user behaviour is a big influence on this but a good BEMS system will ensure that all the systems in the background are operated properly. It will also allow performance monitoring and energy and water metering so that everything can be reviewed and tweaked by the building managers and so that unexpected energy or water consumption can be eliminated.

Total space
The Silver Factory is a building that can be as large or as small as you want it to be. It is a building that can be opened up and used to every single corner. But is also a building that can be closed and compartmented. The Silver Factory can invite interaction or offer seclusion and retreat. It is a building in which one can move in all directions; X, Y or Z. The building can be approached and entered from all sides. Each entrance is on another level; each connecting to another part of Kongsberg.

The Silver Factory is not a blank canvas, but a building with a distinct character, and distinct characters depending on which way one moves, where one enters, if one goes up or down, North, South, East or West. It is an intimate courtyard building that nestles up to the historic buildings of Kirkegata. It is an iconic cultural building that stands proudly in the Hasbergtjerndalen valley. It is an advanced educational building that announces itself to the Bergmannsveien. It is a modern factory of culture, knowledge and public life.

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